Yesterday the Ninth Circuit issued its decision in Rea v. Michaels Stores, reversing a remand order and finding that the defendant employer’s removal of the case to federal court under the Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA) was proper. In line with its decision last year in Roth v. CHA Hollywood Medical Center, the Ninth Circuit reaffirmed that a defendant’s removal options are not limited to the two 30-day windows specified in the federal removal statute. As long as the defendant has not run afoul of either 30-day removal window (meaning that no pleading or other paper revealed on its face that the action was removable), the defendant may remove at any time based on its own information and investigation. The Ninth Circuit also reaffirmed its holding last year in Rodriguez v. AT&T Mobility Services, that the preponderance of evidence standard (and not the legal certainty standard) applies to CAFA removals and that allegations in a complaint purporting to limit the amount in controversy to under $5 million are not binding and do not prevent removal under CAFA.
Applying these principles to the Michaels Stores case, a wage and hour class action alleging misclassification of store managers, the Ninth Circuit held that the employer’s removal was timely, even though it was filed years into the litigation and not within 30 days of any initial or subsequent pleading. The court also held that Michaels had sufficiently demonstrated that the amount in controversy “could exceed $5 million” based on evidence that Michaels expected its managers to work 45 hours per week, along with deposition testimony of putative class members stating that they in fact regularly worked 45 or more hours per week. Extrapolating these overtime hours to the number of employees in the putative class resulted in alleged overtime damages exceeding $5 million. The court held that this evidence (particularly in the absence of any contrary evidence) was sufficient to meet the employer’s burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the amount in controversy requirement was met. For these reasons, the Ninth Circuit held that the district court’s order remanding the case to state court was erroneous.
Notably, while the plaintiff’s petition for review of the remand order was pending before the Ninth Circuit, the litigation proceeded on remand in the state court, resulting in a class being certified. The plaintiff argued before the Ninth Circuit that this grant of class certification turned the Complaint’s non-binding allegation limiting recovery to under $5 million into a binding allegation, thereby precluding CAFA jurisdiction. The Ninth Circuit rejected this argument, reasoning that post-removal developments are not relevant to assessing whether removal was proper at the time the removal was filed and that such subsequent developments do not defeat an otherwise proper removal.
The Rea v. Michaels Stores decision is helpful for employers defending wage and hour class actions in California state courts but seeking to remove those actions to federal court. The full decision is available here.
As many predicted, the Fifth Circuit’s recent invalidation of the NLRB’s D.R. Horton decision has not caused the NLRB to revise its enforcement position on the subject of class action waivers in employment arbitration agreements. The NLRB basically takes the position that, unless overruled by the United States Supreme Court (as opposed to a circuit court of appeal), Board decisions (such as D.R. Horton) remain in effect and are binding on the NLRB’s administrative law judges (“ALJ”). A decision last week from an ALJ in Leslie’s Poolmart, Inc. and Keith Cunnigham evidences the NLBR’s continued adherence to its D.R. Horton decision and policy. Indeed, the Leslie’s Poolmart decision actually expands D.R. Horton by holding that an arbitration agreement that was silent on the issue of class and collective claims still violated Section 7 of the NLRA by interfering with employees’ rights to engage in collective, concerted activity for mutual aid and protection.
In Leslie’s Poolmart, employees were required to sign an arbitration agreement upon hire, whereby they agreed that they would arbitrate any employment-related disputes. The agreement said nothing about whether an employee could pursue class or representative relief in arbitration. Notwithstanding his agreement to arbitrate, employee Cunningham filed a class action lawsuit in California state court against Leslie’s, alleging various wage and hour violations. Leslie’s removed the case to federal court and then filed a motion to compel arbitration of Cunningham’s individual claims and requested that the class claims be dismissed. The court granted the motion (with the exception of a PAGA claim, which the court held was exempt from individual arbitration).
Not to be deterred, Cunningham filed a charge with the NLRB alleging that Leslie’s arbitration agreement and efforts to enforce it violated section 7 of the NLRA. Last week, a NLRB ALJ agreed. The ALJ held that she was still bound by D.R. Horton regardless of the fact that the Fifth Circuit effectively overruled the decision. The ALJ further held that D.R. Horton applied even though the arbitration agreement in this case (unlike the one at issue in D.R. Horton) did not expressly preclude arbitration of class or representative claims. The ALJ reasoned that even though the agreement did not expressly foreclose class claims, it effectively foreclosed such claims because the employer required all employees to sign the agreement and responded to court actions by making motions to compel individual arbitration and to dismiss any class allegations. Thus, the ALJ found that the agreement interfered with employees’ ability to engage in collective concerted activity. The ALJ further held that a single employee's filing of a class action claim (even without active participation of any other employee) constituted protected concerted activity. The ALJ ordered Leslie’s to rescind its arbitration policy and/or to revise it to make clear that employees can pursue class claims either in arbitration or in court. The ALJ further ordered Leslie’s to file a motion with the district court requesting that it vacate its order compelling Cunningham to arbitrate his individual claims. The January 17, 2014 Leslie’s Poolmart decision is available in full on the NLRB’s website here.
Unless and until the United States Supreme Court overrules D.R. Horton, it appears, at least for now, that some plaintiffs' class action lawyers may continue using unfair labor practice charges as a last ditch effort to try to avoid dismissal of their class claims. Given the wide rejection by courts of the NLRB's D.R. Horton decision, the ultimate success of this type of tactic is doubtful.
Yesterday a California court issued a favorable decision for employers regarding overtime pay obligations for employees covered by a collective bargaining agreement. In Vranish v. Exxon Mobil Corp., the plaintiffs, who were unionized production and maintenance workers at Exxon’s Santa Ynez facility, filed a putative class action against Exxon, alleging that Exxon failed to fully pay them overtime compensation required under California law. Pursuant to the applicable CBA, the plaintiffs regularly worked an alternative workweek schedule of seven 12-hour shifts, followed by a period of seven days off. Also pursuant to the CBA, the plaintiffs were paid overtime compensation at the rate of one and one-half times their regular rate of pay for hours worked in excess of 40 per week or 12 hours per day. Overtime was not paid for hours worked between 8 and 12 in a workday.
Plaintiffs sued, alleging that Exxon’s failure to pay them overtime for hours worked between 8 and 12 in a workday was a violation of California’s daily overtime pay requirement set forth in California Labor Code section 510. The court rejected this argument, holding that the daily overtime provision of section 510 did not apply to plaintiffs because they were covered by a valid CBA and sections 510 and 514 exempt employees covered by a CBA containing its own overtime pay provisions. Plaintiffs did not dispute that the CBA was valid or that it provided for payment of overtime compensation in certain circumstances. However, plaintiffs argued that the CBA’s overtime provision was nonetheless in violation of California law because it did not provide for daily overtime for hours worked between 8 and 12 per day. According to plaintiffs, the exemption for employees covered by a CBA only applies if the CBA provides for overtime compensation at least at the rates and in the circumstances set forth in section 510. The court rejected this argument, citing the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement Policy Manual as well as opinion letters wherein the DLSE agreed that the parties to a CBA are free to negotiate and agree on the circumstances under which overtime pay is triggered and the rate at which it will be paid. As a result, section 510’s specific overtime requirements do not apply to employees covered by a valid CBA that contains its own overtime pay provisions.
The court alternatively held that even if plaintiffs’ interpretation of the CBA exemption was correct, Exxon still would not be liable for overtime compensation because the plaintiffs worked a validly adopted alternative workweek schedule providing for 12-hour shifts and, as such, were not eligible for overtime compensation for hours worked between 8 and 12 in a workday.
The full decision is here.
This month, a San Francisco district court denied class certification in Lou v. Ma Laboratories, ruling that class counsel was inadequate due to their simultaneous involvement in two class actions against Ma Laboratories, a global distributor of computer components. The Lou case alleged FLSA and wage and hour claims, such as failure to pay overtime, failure to provide off duty breaks, failure to timely pay final wages, failure to keep accurate wage statements, and unfair competition. Similarly, Tian v. Ma Laboratories alleged nearly identical California wage and hour violations.
Before certifying a class, courts must consider whether the attorneys representing a proposed class are adequate. In doing so, a court will analyze (a) whether there are any conflicts of interest between counsel, the named plaintiffs or other class members, and (b) whether counsel can vigorously prosecute their case on behalf of the class. In federal court, Rule 23(A)(4) requires class counsel to “fairly and adequately protect the interests of the class.”
Ultimately, the court found a conflict of interest existed due to the attorneys’ simultaneous representation of two classes against the same defendant on many of the same claims. Given this conflict, class counsel could not fairly and adequately represent the interests of the class. The Lou court noted that class counsel “wield great power” in their strategic decisions concerning litigation and settlement and the class deserved “to be championed by its counsel unencumbered by their duties to other clients.” As a result, this denial of class certification for inadequacy of class counsel can be viewed as a victory for employers defending against multiple class actions in California for similar claims.
Last week, the Ninth Circuit issued its decision in Muniz v. UPS, holding that the trial court did not abuse its discretion in awarding the plaintiff close to $700,000 in attorneys' fees, even though the plaintiff's damages recovery was only $27,000 and the defendant defeated the majority of plaintiff's claims prior to trial. This result is an unpleasant example of how an employer can be largely victorious in defending an employment suit yet still lose big on attorneys' fees.
In Muniz, the plaintiff was given a performance improvement plan and later demoted, based on unsatisfactory performance. Plaintiff sued, alleging "kitchen sink" discrimination based on age and gender, and also alleged retaliation and negligent supervision and training. Plaintiff's age discrimination, retaliation, and negligent supervision claims (as well as plaintiff's claim for punitive damages) were defeated and/or voluntarily dismissed prior to trial (meaning UPS prevailed on these claims). The only claim that was actually tried was plaintiff's claim for gender discrimination based on being given a performance improvement plan and later demoted. The jury determined that plaintiff's demotion was motivated by gender discrimination but awarded plaintiff damages of only $27,000 (much less than plaintiff's plea to the jury to award her $700,000). The jury also concluded that plantiff's performance improvement plan was motivated in part by gender discrimination, but that UPS would have taken the same action for legitimate, non-discriminatory reasons. As such, the plaintiff was not permitted to recover damages (alleged emotional distress) associated with the performance criticism.
In sum, the defense largely prevailed in the case, having defeated all but one of plaintiff's claims and substantially limiting plaintiff's recovery. That is, until plaintiff filed a motion for recovery of attorneys' fees for prevailing on one FEHA discrimination claim. Plaintiff outrageously sought $1.9 million in fees for her limited success, including a claimed lodestar (number of hours expended times hourly rates) of $1.3 million (which included time spent litigating the claims that were defeated) and a requested 1.5 upward enhancement. The trial court denied the requested 1.5 multiplier and limited its analysis to the reasonableness of the $1.3 lodestar. In this regard, the trial court found that plaintiff's counsel's proffered hourly rates were unreasonable and reduced them slightly. The trial court also found that plaintiff's counsel had not sufficiently proven the number of hours expended on the litigation and, therefore, reduced the compensable total hours by 20 percent, bringing the fee award down to $773,000. At that point, the court considered UPS' argument that the fee award needed to be substantially reduced to account for plaintiff's very limited success and the extreme disproportion between the plaintiff's damages and the amount of fees sought. The trial court reduced the fees by only 10 percent and awarded plaintiff nearly $700,000 in fees.
UPS appealed to the Ninth Circuit, arguing primarily that the fee award should have reduced more than 10 percent to account for plaintiff's limited success. The Ninth Circuit disagreed, relying heavily on the deferential standard of review which gives a trial court broad discretion to set the amount of fees awarded. The Ninth Circuit held that the trial court could have reduced the fee award more, but that it could not be said that it was an abuse of discretion for the trial court not to do so. The court reasoned that a reduction for time spent on unsuccessful claims is proper only to the extent it can be demonstrated that certain hours were spent exclusively on the unsuccessful claims. Time spent, for example in discovery, on both successful and unsuccesful claims should not be reduced from a fee award. The Ninth Circuit concluded that the trial court properly considered these issues and did not abuse its discretion in determining the amount of fees to award.
The Muniz case is another one for the plaintiffs' bar arsenal. It will make it more difficult for employers fighting FEHA claims in California federal courts to successfully limit any award of attorneys' fees to a prevailing plaintiff, thereby effectively increasing the incentive to settle such claims early on. The full decision is here.
Today, the Fifth Circuit issued its decision in D.R. Horton v. NLRB, invalidating the NLRB's holding that D.R. Horton's arbitration agreement violated the NLRA by prohibiting employees from pursuing employment claims on a class or collective basis. The NLRB had reasoned that disallowing class and collective claims in arbitration and in court precludes employees from exercising their right under the NLRA to engage in collective, concerted activity for mutual aid and protection. The Fifth Circuit disagreed.
Relying on recent United States Supreme Court decisions starting with AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, the Fifth Circuit held that the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) requires that arbitration agreements be enforced according to their terms and that a provision prohibiting class-wide arbitration is an enforceable term. The Fifth Circuit further held that nothing in the NLRA or its legislative history evinces any Congressional intent to ovveride the FAA, and that general language in the NLRA relating to "mutual aid and protection" could not be interpreted as an expression of Congress' intent to override the FAA.
The NLRB argued that its ruling was valid because it did not require employers to allow class-wide arbitration. Instead, it simply required employers to allow employees to pursue relief on a class-wide basis either in arbitration or in court. The Fifth Circuit held that there was nothing in the NLRA suggesting that a prohibition on class-wide claims violates the NLRA. The court also held that requiring employers to allow employees to pursue class-wide claims (either in court or in arbitration) has the effect of disfavoring arbitration, in contravention of the FAA.
The Fifth Circuit's decision was not an all-out win for D.R. Horton, however. The Fifth Circuit held that D.R. Horton's arbitration policy reasonably could be interpreted as preventing employees from pursuing administrative claims with the NLRB (based on broad language explaining that the employee was waiving the right to file a lawsuit "or other civil proceeding" relating to an employment dispute). As a result, the court held that the NLRB properly ordered D.R. Horton to take corrective action to revise its policy to clarify that employees are not prohibited from filing charges with the NLRB.
The Fifth Circuit's decision in D.R. Horton is the first circuit court decision addressing the D.R. Horton issue in a direct appeal from a NLRB action. However, many courts throughout the country, including many in California and in the Ninth Circuit have similarly rejected the NLRB's D.R. Horton analysis and refused to follow it. It remains to be seen what the NLRB will do in response to the Fifth Circuit's decision. The NLRB could petition for review to the United States Supreme Court. In the meantime, the NLRB may continue to follow and apply its D.R. Horton analysis to invalidate class waivers in jurisdictions outside the Fifth Circuit. Alternatively, the NLRB could abandon its attack on class waivers consistent with the weight of court decisions rejecting the NLRB's analysis in this regard. Time will tell.
For now, arbitration agreements with class action waiver provisions remain an effective tool for employers to prevent class-wide employment claims.
The Fifth Circuit's decision is available here.
This week, the Ninth Circuit has issued two new decisions on the enforceability of arbitration agreements post-Concepcion. In the first case, Ferguson v. Corinthian Colleges, the court issued an opinion favoring enforcement of arbitration agreements by striking down over a decade of California-based precedent holding that arbitration may not be compelled where the action is one seeking public injunctive relief. This precedent was widely known as the “Broughton-Cruz” rule (which was also adopted by the Ninth Circuit in Davis v. O’Melveny & Myers). The Ninth Circuit correctly held that, in light of the Supreme Court’s instruction in Concepcion, courts cannot carve out particular types of claims (such as claims for public injunctive relief) from arbitration. In the Corinthian Colleges case, the plaintiffs were vocational students who alleged that the college misled them through misrepresentations about future employment opportunities. The plaintiffs sought an injunction to preclude the college from continuing to make such misrepresentations to recruit future students. Corinthian sought to compel arbitration of the plaintiffs’ claims, but a federal district court refused to enforce the arbitration agreement. The Ninth Circuit reversed, holding that the claims were arbitrable regardless of the fact that they sought public injunctive relief. While not an employment case, the Corinthian Colleges case provides further federal precedent preventing California district courts from refusing to enforce arbitration simply because a specific type of claim is at issue. This principle applies equally to disputes concerning arbitration agreements in employment cases. The Corinthian Colleges case is available here.
The Ninth Circuit’s second arbitration decision this week was less arbitration-friendly. That case, Chavarria v. Ralphs Grocery, involved an employment arbitration agreement between a grocery store employee and the grocery chain. The employee filed a putative class action for alleged Labor Code violations and Ralphs sought to compel arbitration of the individual employee’s claim based on an arbitration policy the employee accepted as part of her employment application. The district court found the arbitration agreement unconscionable under California law and refused to compel arbitration. This week, the Ninth Circuit agreed with the district court’s holding that the agreement was unconscionable and unenforceable under California law (i.e. Armendariz and its progeny). The court specifically held that Concepcion and subsequent United States Supreme Court decisions do not affect the continued validity of state law unconscionability doctrine as a means for invalidating an arbitration agreement. Applying California’s unconscionability law, the court held that Ralphs’ arbitration agreement was procedurally unconscionable because it was presented to employees on a “take it or leave it” basis with no ability to negotiate, and the arbitration terms were not provided to employees until three weeks after they signed the agreement (i.e. the employment application). The court also agreed with the district court’s finding that the agreement was substantively unconscionable, meaning that it was unfairly one-sided so as to “shock the conscience.” The court focused on two provisions of the arbitration policy—the arbitrator selection provision and the costs provision. With respect to arbitrator selection, the court determined that the process would always result in the arbitrator being one proposed by Ralphs, which was unfairly one-sided. That is because the policy provided that each side could propose three arbitrators, followed by an alternating strike method allowing the party not demanding arbitration to strike first. In the court’s view, the party not demanding arbitration would always be Ralphs in any employee-initiated claim and that would always result in the last arbitrator standing being on Ralphs' list. (In this author’s view, that interpretation is a little tortured because in a typical case, the employee files a lawsuit in state court rather than “demanding” arbitration. The employee opposes arbitration and the employer has to “demand” it by making a motion to compel arbitration with the court. Ralphs also made this argument, but the Ninth Circuit rejected it.) The policy also specifically disallowed the use of AAA or JAMS arbitrators, which meant that those institutions’ rules for neutral arbitrator selection could not be used.
As to the costs provision in the policy, the Ninth Circuit held that this too was unconscionable. The policy itself is somewhat unclear, but generally provides that the arbitrator is to apportion arbitration-related fees to the parties at the outset of the proceeding subject to United States Supreme Court precedent on the subject and that if such precedent requires Ralphs to pay up to all of the arbitration fees, Ralphs would do that, but if United States Supreme Court precedent did not require such a result, then the arbitrator could apportion the arbitration fees/costs equally between the parties. The Ninth Circuit interpreted this provision as requiring the arbitrator in every case to impose substantial and prohibitive fees on the employee at the outset of the arbitration, so as to effectively preclude the employee from continuing with arbitration at all. On this basis, along with the unfair arbitrator selection provision, the court held that the agreement was substantively unconscionable. Having found that the agreement was both procedurally and substantively unconscionable, the court held that the arbitration agreement as a whole was unenforceable and that the employee could proceed with her claims in court. The Ralphs Grocery decision is available here.
The Ralphs Grocery decision, coupled with last week’s California Supreme Court decision in Sonic Calabasas, confirms that California state and federal courts will continue to recognize and apply California unconscionability law to review and potentially refuse to enforce employment arbitration agreements. Thus, litigation over the enforceability of these agreements is certain to continue, even though there have been huge employer-friendly gains in the last couple of years strengthening the enforceability of these agreements. The continued validity of the unconscionability doctrine serves as an important reminder to employers to review their arbitration policies and agreements to ensure that they pass muster under these standards. Employers are also reminded that important cases are still pending before the California Supreme Court on the issue of the enforceability of class action waivers in employment arbitration agreements and whether California's "Gentry" analysis for evaluating the enforceability of these waiver provisions is still valid in the wake of Concepcion. We will keep you updated on further developments in this area.
Today the California Supreme Court issued its opinion in Sonic-Calabasas v. Moreno, holding that an employment arbitration agreement is enforceable even where an employee is pursuing administrative remedies (typically for alleged unpaid wages) through the California Labor Commissioner.
The California Supreme Court had previously held in this same case that an arbitration agreement is unconscionable to the extent it seeks to preclude an administrative hearing before the Labor Commissioner. Following that ruling, however, the United States Supreme Court issued its decision in in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, striking down a similar California Supreme Court ruling that had found class action waivers is consumer contracts generally unconscionable and unenforceable. The United States Supreme Court thereafter ordered the California Supreme Court to reconsider its ruling in Sonic-Calabasas in light of Concepcion.
Today the California Supreme Court issued its new decision in "Sonic II." The Court held that Concepcion precludes a finding that an arbitration agreement is unconscionable simply because it requires parties to arbitrate a Labor Code dispute instead of permitting the employee to first proceed with an administrative hearing before the Labor Commissioner. Thus, an arbitration agreement now may still be enforced even in Labor Commissioner proceedings and require the parties to arbitrate their dispute. However, the California Supreme Court held that while there is no categorical unconscionability rule for arbitration agreements that preclude an administrative hearing before the Labor Commissioner, an arbitration agreement can still be deemed unenforceable if determined to be procedurally and substantively unconscionable (based on unfair terms above and beyond precluding an administrative hearing). The Court stated: "As with any contract, the unconscionability inquiry requires a court to examine the totality of the agreement's substantive terms as well as the circumstances of its formation to determine whether the overall bargain was unreasonably one-sided." The Court further stated that the agreement "must provide an employee with an accessible and affordable arbitral forum for resolving wage disputes." The Court basically held that the unconscionability standards it long ago set forth in Armendariz remain good law even after Concepcion.
The Court held that it did not have sufficient information to rule on the unconscionability issue as to the arbitration agreement between Moreno and Sonic-Calabasas. It therefore remanded the issue to the trial court to determine. The Court provided guidance to trial courts to assist in making unconscionability determinations, characterizing the inquiry as a detailed factual inquiry that still permits the court to consider (among other factors) the effect of the waiver of certain benefits of an administrative proceeding before the Labor Commissioner. The Court's opinion basically precludes a bright line rule on when an arbitration agreement will be deemed unconscionable and instead ensures that trial courts will continue to come out all over the map on these issues.
Justice Chin, joined by Justice Baxter, authored a vigorous dissent in which he criticized the majority's unconscionability analysis and stated that the Court's analysis contravenes Concepcion.
The full 100-plus page opinion is available here.
Today the Ninth Circuit issued its decision in Urbino v. Orkin Services of California, Inc., addressing how to properly analyze whether the amount in controversy element is satisfied for purposes of diversity jurisdiction in a PAGA action. As most California employers know, PAGA is a California statute that allows an employee to recover penalties (purportedly on behalf of the state) against an employer for various violations of the California Labor Code. Worse, the employee who is the named plaintiff can seek to recover penalties on behalf of all aggrieved employees. Most claims are filed in state court, but employers retain the option to remove the action to federal court if the requirements for diversity jurisdiction are met. One of those requirements is that the amount in controversy must exceed $75,000. In determining whether the amount in controversy meets this jurisdictional threshold, the question becomes whether courts should look only at the amount of the named plaintiff's claim, or whether courts should look at the aggregate amount of the claim as to all "represented" employees. California district courts have disagreed over the answer to this question. Today, the Ninth Circuit resolved the question, holding that only the claim of the named plaintiff (and not the aggregate claims of all aggrieved employees sought to be represented) may be considered in determining whether the amount in controversy requirement is satisfied. The result of this decision will be that far fewer PAGA claims will be capable of removal to federal court based on diversity jurisdiction. The full opinion of the court is here.
The recent U.S. Supreme Court Case regarding the Defense of Marriage Act (Windsor v. Schlain, No. 12-307 (U.S. 2013)) has numerous immigration consequences for certain same-sex spouses that are married. The June 26, 2013 decision opens the door for many immigration benefits for certain qualifying spouses.
If the marriage takes place in a state that recognizes a same-sex marriage, then U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services (US CIS) will allow the U.S. Citizen or permanent resident partner to sponsor their foreign national spouse for permanent residency in the U.S. Currently, there are 14 states where the marriage will be recognized as valid for immigration purposes, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Washington DC.
And the U.S. Citizen spouse could even sponsor the foreign national partner on a fiancé visa if they are overseas and plan to marry within 90 days of entry to the U.S.
In addition, it will allow non-immigrants who are applying for a temporary visa (such as H-1B, L-1, TN, etc.) to have their spouses join them on a derivative visa if their same-sex marriage is recognized as valid in the overseas country where the marriage took place. Currently, there are 15 countries that recognize same sex-marriages including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and Uruguay.
US CIS has indicated that the place of marriage (celebration) will dictate eligibility as opposed to the current place of residency. For example, if a couple marries in California and then moves to Wyoming, then they will still be able to petition for permanent residency since the location of the ‘place of celebration” of the marriage controls.
Spouses may also marry overseas in a country that recognizes same-sex marriages and US CIS will recognize that marriage for visa purposes.
US CIS is expected to provide more guidance on this in the months to come. See here.
For more information, please contact Greg Berk, Chair of the CDF Immigration Practice Group.